Danny’s DNA Discoveries – Omphalotaceae of the PNW (Marasmiineae)
This is one of the largest families in the Marasmiineae sub-order, containing many species of collybioid stature (and sometimes marasmioid stature). Usually, a white spored mushroom with a tough, cartilaginous stem is somewhere in this sub-order (not necessarily here) but many species could not be properly placed until DNA came along. There is a vast "white spored multitude" of species, as they say in Mushrooms of the Redwood Coast, and it can be very difficult to identify a mushroom even to sub-order never mind family never mind genus. This is definitely a case of "learn the species to learn the genera" as often, nothing much unites them.
These have not been well studied in the PNW, and we keep seeing species we don't recognize, so I knew we would find surprising new species when we starting sequencing them. They are called collybioid because all mushrooms of that stature used to be called Collybia. Then we found out that the group was very artificial and those mushrooms were split, and it turned out that the first and true Collybias were atypically small and actually part of Clitocybe in the Tricholomataceae, so many collybioid mushrooms were moved to Gymnopus. Then DNA discovered that some Gymnopus were inside Marasmiellus, and some former Marasmiellus didn't belong there. Finally, it was discovered that Marasmiellus was a word that shouldn't be used, since Collybiopsis is an older synonym for that genus. There is no good way to tell Gymnopus and Collybiopsis apart without DNA, so I am treating them in one section.
All three garlic mushroom clades are in this family. You can identify your garlic-like sub-order Marasmiineae mushrooms this way:
abundant common uncommon rare - colour codes match my Pictorial Key and are my opinions and probably reflect my bias of living in W WA. Rare species may be locally common in certain places at certain times.
Summary of Interesting Results
Here are some of the newest, most interesting results of the study:
Gymnopus and Collybiopsis (Marasmiellus) - click to expand
The main genera for many collybioid mushrooms (white spores, slender stature and never that large, possible tough stem, attached gills that aren't usually decurrent). Some marasmioid mushrooms are found here too (even smaller size, distant gills, dark stem bottoms). Some of the collybioids smell of garlic and will be confused with Mycetinis and Paragymnopus, below, which are smaller marasmioids. Uniting these two genera (and making them hard to tell apart) is the fact that although they have typical repent, filamentous hyphae in the cap cuticle (and not spherical cells) the hyphae are often knobby or branched with interesting outgrowths.
mentioned: Gymnopus dryophilus, aquosus, alpinus, junquilleus, subsulphureus,
ocior, earleae, vernus, erythropus, spongiosus, semihirtipes, fuscopurpureus,
alkalivirens, brassicolens, dysodes, impudicus, polyphyllus,
putillus, fusipes, contrarius, quinaultii. Marasmius androsaceus.
Collybiopsis peronata, confluens, confluens subsp. campanulatus, bakerensis,
luxurians, subpruinosus, villosipes, eneficola, hasanskyensis, californica,
pluvius, vaillantii. Marasmiellus papillatus, filopes.
1a. Gymnopus - collybioid, odorless, not turning green in KOH (easily confused with section 2 - collybioid Collybiopsis)
Gymnopus dryophilus EU - a somewhat hygrophanous warm orange-brown cap and stem, named after oak but found ubiquitously throughout any forest. No bulb and white rhizomorphs. Some local sequences match very well to the type sequence, but most of them differ by 7 bp or so in ITS2, although they are still almost an exact match (only 1 bp different) in ITS1. It's unusual to find such asymetry in areas that supposedly randomly mutate, so I'm not sure what that means. But a 2013 Antonin paper could find no morphological or ecological differences between them, and for now it is all considered one species, only distinguishable by ITS2.
Gymnopus aquosus EU - a lookalike we never noticed was here (we undoubtedly thought they were G. dryophilus) until DNA showed us it was. It supposedly has a stem bulb and pink rhizomorphs. ITS DNA of G. aquosus varies a bit more than the usual 0.5% around the world, but it's all considered one species.
Gymnopus cf aquosus (alpinus EU/junquilleus NC/subsulphureus KS complex) - some sequences of G. aquosus are about 1% different, practically exactly the same as the ITS DNA of a few sister species that all share the same ITS DNA. Those species have a very dark red-brown cap (G. alpinus) or are entirely bright yellow (G. junquilleus and G. subsulphureus). At least two of them have been shown to interbreed, so perhaps our local collections with this sequence do not represent a separate species but represent G. aquosus of the first group with "pure" ITS DNA hybridizing with one of the different looking species but still retaining its own character. This is an interesting puzzle. For now I am treating both groups as G. aquosus, but we need collections with this different DNA to compare features.
Gymnopus dryophilus © Bruce Newhouse, G. aquosus © Buck McAdoo, G. cf. aquosus © Buck McAdoo
Gymnopus ocior EU - a darker, colder wine-coloured cap, possibly with yellowish gills, growing in disturbed urban places like wood mulch. This was also not known from the PNW until we sequenced collections that were either mistaken for G. dryophilus or that were not recognized. Two WA sequences match EU sequences quite well.
Gymnopus aff. earleae GA ('vernus' EU?) - a darker chestnut brown colour than G. dryophilus, found in spring as well as fall. (It is similar to the green KOH species G. aff. spongiosus grp below, but usually less striate. It is also similar to but less striate than Collybiopsis villosipes, further below, but that species has a hairy stem). This was also not previously known from the PNW, having also been mistaken for G. dryophilus or just not recognized. There are 2 competing concepts from eastern North America about what G. earleae is. Out west we find one of them, but I can't say for sure if it's the real one or the unnamed lookalike. We need more GA sequences, if not the type to find out. It's possible that reports of the similar G. vernus EU represent this (it's a very similar spring mushroom) but I don't know, so if you think you find the real G. vernus here, save it.
Gymnopus ocior © Buck McAdoo, G. aff. earleae © Buck McAdoo
1b. Gymnopus - collybioid, odorless, turning green in KOH
Gymnopus erythropus EU - notable for its strongly two-toned stem grading from dark reddish brown below to paler orange above, but some collections don't have much of a pale upper stem and are difficult to identify. The cap fades from darker brown to lighter brown. Many local sequences match many EU sequences. Occasionally collections smell like rotting cabbage, even though this species is not in the garlic clade covered next. Those collections have identical sequences to the ones that don't have an odor.
Gymnopus aff. spongiosus group ('fuscopurpureus'?) -dark chestnut brown and strongly striate. G. aff. earleae above doesn't turn green in KOH and is usually less striate. Collybiopsis villosipes below doesn't turn green in KOH and has a hairy stem. Two different groups sequence 5 bp and 1 indel apart from each other in ITS1 only (about 3% different) and may represent two different species. We need ITS2 of the second species and more collections of the first to sort this out. The closest named species are G. spongiosus (with a completely hairy stem) and G. semihirtipes (with a hairy stem bottom). #1 is smooth stemmed and did not turn green in KOH (we need more collections to check them). #2 has an entirely pubescent stem and did turn green in KOH. Gymnopus fuscopurpureus EU and Gymnopus alkalivirens VI have been reported from the PNW but we don't have reliable sequences of either of those, although it starting to seem unlikely that either species is found in the PNW.
Gymnopus cf fuscopurpureus (but not?) - starting out warm brown, but the cap, gills and stem seem to grey in age. Bald stem. KOH turns green. One WA sequence matches an AZ sequence, but there are many competing concepts for what a sequence of G. fuscopurpureus really is, and this seems unlikely to be it. So what is it?
Gymnopus erythropus © Steve Trudell, G. aff. spongiosus #1 and #2 © Buck McAdoo, G. cf. fuscopurpureus (but not?) © Buck McAdoo
1c. Gymnopus - collybioid, garlic odor (but note that G. erythropus above may smell of rotten cabbage and 'Micromphale' arbuticola is a small marasmioid)
Gymnopus impudicus EU ('dysodes'?) - dark red brown cap (when fresh), possibly paler stem, everything fading in age, distant gills and garlic/onion odor found in the wild. The very similar Gymnopus dysodes (with a very striate cap, much larger spores and found in woodchips) was reported from the PNW too but we need collections to see if it really is here or if those were cases of mistaken identity of G. impudicus (the caps weren't very striate so I have my doubts that G. dysodes is really here). One other thing to check when figuring out which (or both) species is here is whether or not KOH turns green with either species, as it is supposed to at least with G. dysodes, even though it doesn't clade with other KOH positive species. We have a couple of EU sequences of G. impudicus that could be the real thing that 2 WA collections match, but we don't have a type sequence.
Gymnopus cf. polyphyllus NY - a pale yellow-tan species with very crowded gills and a strong garlic odor. There are vague reports of it in the PNW, but it is so distinctive you'd think it would have been found in the last 30 years if it really was here. We need collections.
Gymnopus cf. brassicolens EU - much like G. erythropus but always smells like rotting cabbage/garlic. Its two toned stem is almost blackish purple on the bottom. It is reported from CA and to be looked for in Oregon, but no local collections yet.
'Micromophale' arbuticola CA - a much smaller marasmioid garlic mushroom growing on the bark of madrone. It has yet to be moved to Gymnopus but should, in fact it is in the same clade with all these others, probably closest to Gymnopus foetidus, it just unfortunately evolved to be smaller than the others. We need sequences of it; we don't have any yet. Our common 'Micromphale' perforans was moved to Paragymnopus when Micromphale was split between the two genera.
Gymnopus impudicus © Buck McAdoo
2. Collybiopsis - collybioid (easily confused with section 1a - collybioid Gymnopus without KOH reaction)
Collybiopsis peronata UK - usually yellow tones, a hairy stem base and distant gills. Introduced to the PNW around the 90s but it really loves it here as it quickly became one of our most abundant, ubiquitous mushrooms. DNA worldwide matches DNA from Scotland, the type area.
Collybiopsis peronata © Fred Rhoades and Steve Trudell
Collybiopsis confluens EU -Collybiopsis confluesns subsp. campanulatus NY - tan to orange-brown colours (brighter when fresh), somewhat of a collar around the stem where it attaches to the cap that can look like a ball-in-socket joint, and crowded gills. Our local North American subspecies is more common, but, at least now, you can occasionally find the original EU species here as well. There is no good way to tell them apart without sequencing one, they even appear to interbreed, but with the populations 3.25% apart in ITS, they are being considered subspecies of each other.
Collybiopsis confluens (unknown subspecies) © Steve Trudell
Collybiopsis sp. Buck 572 - two OR and one WA collection are probably an unnamed species. One was uniformly brown with a decorated stipe, and one had a black stipe and a pleated cap. Nothing else is known about it; be on the lookout. Presumably it will not turn green in KOH.
Collybiopsis sp. Buck 572 © iNaturalist user winterwren22 and Buck McAdoo
'Collybia' bakerensis WA - a small, pale collybioid growing on large conifer logs, it is fairly non-descript with a little different stature than Mycena (Mycenaceae) and Clitocybula (Porotheleaceae) (found in other families of the Marasmiineae sub-order) that are also white with white spores and non-decurrent gills that grow on larger pieces of wood. This species still needs to be moved to the genus Collybiopsis. We don't have a type sequence, but we have a few local collections that all agree.
probable 'Collybia' bakerensis © Andrew Parker
Collybiopsis sp. JLF8770 - this appears to have a two or three toned stem like Gymnopus erythropus but almost black as the bottom colour like Gymnopus cf brassicolens above, but this species doesn't have the garlic odor. Only found once so far in southern OR.
Collybiopsis sp. JLF8770 © Jonathan Frank
Collybiopsis luxurians NC - our largest species, brown cap and pale stem, growing sometimes clustered on rotten wood and in urban places like wood chips, gardens and grass. Our sequences match NC sequences.
probable Collybiopsis luxurians © Steve Trudell
Collybiopsis cf. subpruinosus Jamaica - a tan coloured species whose cap can become quite pleated. There are one set of sequences from WA, CA and Chile that all match, but on the other hand, another sequence from Puerto Rico is 10% different, and that's a lot closer to Jamaica, the type area, so I'm not sure which is the real one.
Collybiopsis cf subpruinosa © Buck McAdoo
Collybiopsis villosipes Australia - a colder darker brown, with similarly coloured gills. Somewhat striate. Stem covered in fine hairs. KOH does not turn green. It could still be confused with one of the undescribed species on this page. They say it probably evolved here on the west coast and then travelled the world where it was first described in Australia. Not all sequences appear to be the same, but some sequences have 5 ambiguous locations accounting for most of the differences.
Collybiopsis villosipes © Ann Goddard
Collybiopsis eneficola NFLD - pale tan (almost white) in all stages of freshness with subdistant gills and a hairy stem. Joanne Lennox found this in WA back in the 70s and called it Collybia tomentipes, but it finally got described for real in 2014 in Newfoundland. Her sequence is only of ITS1 but it matches the NFLD type sequence exactly. It has not been found since so we don't have a local photograph. We need recent local collections.
Collybiopsis eneficola Newfoundland © Ron Petersen, Karen Hughes and Andrus Voitk
Collybiopsis aff. hasanskyensis Russia - typical reddish brown cap fading to very pale, but the stem retaining colour, almost two toned, which makes it much like Gymnopus erythropus above, but this species appears to have very distant gills. Our one WA collection surprised us by being 7 bp and 3 indels different than official sequences of this Russian sequences. That may be enough to imply that ours needs its own name.
Collybiopsis aff. hasanskyensis © Yi-Min Wang
3. "Horsehair" Gymnopus - marasmioid, especially wiry black "horsehair" stem
Gymnopus aff. androsaceus EU - smaller than the others, with a "horsehair" stem that is very thin, wiry and black. A brownish cap fades in age, but not as much as the similar Pseudomarasmius, below, whose stem is not as wiry. Formerly in Marasmius. our one Idaho sequence is 6 bp different than numerous EU sequences but I don't know if that's enough to consider it a separate species here. I would like more recent collections.
Gymnopus aff androsaceus © A and O Ceska
4. Collybiopsis - marasmioid (smaller with distant gills) (most easily confused with Pseudomarasmius below)
Collybiopsis californica CA 1987 - smaller and more delicate than the others, with a pale cap, distant gills and more brightly coloured red-brown stem that is somewhat two toned. Described from oak litter in California. Note that Marasmiellus californicus refers to something else, Paragymnopus sequoiae.
'Marasmiellus' pluvius BC 1982 - almost the same, described from conifer litter in British Columbia. This still needs to move to Collybiopsis.
Well, guess which sequence three WA collections on conifer litter matched? C. californica, not M. pluvius. The only M. pluvius sequence we have is from Tennessee, so I have a theory that actually, the two species are the same and can live on either kind of litter and that the TN species is undescribed. Stay tuned.
Collybiopsis californica © Fred Rhoades
Collybiopsis cf. vaillantii EU - perhaps a paler cap, more decurrent gills, and stem that only darkens at the bottom (compared to the previous two, which it is not that closely related to). Reported from the PNW, but not proven, perhaps reports of this represent one of the above two species. We need local collections, but we also need EU sequences to compare to, as we only have one purported ENA sequence to compare to right now, which might be misidentified.
'Marasmiellus' papillatus NY - this small nondescript species was reported from the PNW but not proven, we don't have any DNA yet so we don't even know if it really belongs in Collybiopsis. We need collections.
'Marasmiellus' filopes NY - this mildy garlicky small species was reported from the PNW but not proven, we don't have any DNA yet so we don't even know if it really belongs in Collybiopsis. We need collections.
5. Other Gymnopi to look for
'Gymnopus' quinaultii WA - is small. Nobody is sure what this local species is, and there is no DNA yet, so we desperately need collections to find out for sure what genus it is really in and if it really is a unique species. Most of the other small Gymnopus described in the same paper turned out to belong to Paragymnopus (below).
'Gymnopus' cf. putillus - wine-red cap and gills contrast with a very pale entirely pubescent stem. Reports of this species being here have not been verified, nor do we even know what it really is... Gymnopus or Collybiopsis or something else entirely. We need collections.
Gymnopus cf. fusipes - has a spindle shaped rooting stem, distant gills and spots red-brown all over. Nobody really believes the vague report that it might be in the PNW, but keep an eye out for it anyway.
'Gymnopus' contrarius NY - this probably needs a genus of its own (it is sister to Mycetinis, Neonothopanus and Omphalotus), so it certainly is a contrary species, but thankfully it is not recorded from the PNW yet. Just in case it ever is, I'm mentioning it here.
Mycetinis - click to expand
Garlic odors - smaller marasmioid mushrooms than the garlic Gymnopi, and with two-toned black bottomed stems. Similar to Paragymnopus which have rotten cabbage odors, but Mycetinis has spherical cap cuticle cells.
Species mentioned: Mycetinis scorodonius, scorodonius forma diminutivus, allaceus, salalis, copelandii, applanatipes
Mycetinis scorodonius EU/scorodonius forma diminutivus WA - with a bald stem. It is typically found here with a cap <1 cm in the small forma diminutivus (of which we have the type sequence and a BC sequence), but there are reports of the larger M. scorodonius (caps >1 cm) being found here as well. They share the same ITS DNA.
Mycetinis salalis BC -caps >1 cm, tomentose stem. This is our most common species growing on salal debris, differing by host and microscopically (one of the "ridiculously long spored" species).
Mycetinis cf copelandii CA -the other "ridiculously long spored" species, although not as ridiculously long as M. salalis. All data so far indicates the two ridiculously long spored species have the same ITS DNA. This is by far the older species. It may be found in at least southern Oregon. We need collections to prove it.
Mycetinis applanatipes CA - from high elevations with red fir, probably also with a tomentose stem. It differs microscopically from all of the above. It was reported from OR (and BC?), but we need collections to prove it. We have an official CA sequence to compare to. It is officially a rare red listed species in CA.
M. salalis © Steve Trudell
Paragymnopus - click to expand
Rotten cabbage odor - small, brownish capped marasmioid mushrooms with tri-coloured stems that are black on the bottom. Similar to Mycetinis, but those have pure garlic odors and spherical cap cuticles. It has not been proven that all species in this genus have the odor, if not, identification is going to be even more difficult.
Species mentioned: Paragymnopus perforans, perforans subsp. transatlanticus, ponderosae, pinophilus, sublaccatus, sequoiae, Gymnopus bulliformis, fragillior, glabrosipes
Paragymnopus perforans EU/perforans subsp. transatlanticus PQ - the European and eastern North American species long assumed to be the species found here too, but as we now have at least 5 more species described from the west coast, the reports that this species is actually here are now doubted and need confirmation. Genetically, there seems to be a bit of a difference between EU and ENA sequences, although in ITS only the picture is not very clear.
Paragymnopus sequoiae CA (=Paragymnopus sublaccatus BC) - BC, OR and CA sequences match fairly closely and are all very close in ITS to Paragymnopus perforans.
Paragymnopus ponderosae CA (=Paragymnopus pinophilus NC) - not sure which name has priority. We have an Idaho sequence officially recognized as this species by the authors.
'Gymnopus' fragillior WA - no DNA or photo, described on the basis that one dried collection looked different from the others, needs verification. One recent collection from WA that matched this microscopically was sequenced. Its sequence did not match any of the above, so it could be that we now know what the DNA is for this species. This collection did not appear to have the described rotten cabbage odor, which was unexpected. We need more collections to verify that we now know what this collection is, and if not 'Gymnopus' fragillior, we have to figure out what it really is.
'Gymnopus' bulliformis WA - no DNA or photo, described on the basis that one dried collection looked different from the others, needs verification.
'Gymnopus' glabrosipes WA - no DNA or photo, described on the basis that one dried collection looked different from the others, needs verification.
Paragymnopus sublaccatus (sequoiae) © iNaturalist user winterwren22, 'Gymnopus' cf fragillior © Buck McAdoo
Rhodocollybia, Connopus, Pseudomarasmius, etc. - click to expand
Rhodocollybia are larger and fleshier, with fleshy (not tough) stems that may be long and rooting. The spore print is somewhat coloured. The gill edges are often serrated. It's just possible Rhodocollybia may need to be split.
Connopus aff. acervatus (bagleyensis n.p.) is a very tightly clustered burgundy collybioid.
Pseudomarasmius pallidocephalus is a small, pale capped marasmioid with a dark stem that is fairly thin but not as wiry as Gymnopus androsaceus. Easily mistaken for the smaller Collybiopsis.
Genus s211 is a unique find so far.
'Gymnopus' striatipes has a grooved stem and grows in tan coloured clusters, and may belong in Rhodocollybia but it is without serrated gill edges.
Species mentioned: Rhodocollybia butyracea, butyracea forma asema, badiialba, olivaceogrisea, maculata, oregonensis, unakensis, extuberans, subsulcatipes, Gymnopus striatipes, Collybia cylindrospora
Connopus aff. acervatus (bagleyensis n.p.) - burgundy caps that fade, but the stems still remain bright, recognized by being very tightly clustered in large quantities. Joanne Lennox back in the 70's was going to call our species Collybia bagleyensis, but she never finished formally describing it. It turns out she might have been right that our species is not the same as 'Collybia' acervata EU, as other people have since noticed differences in our collections from EU and ENA collections, and our ITS DNA differs by more than 3%. In Joanne's honour, I would like to call our species Connopus bagleyensis.
Connopus aff. acervatus © Steve Trudell
Pseudomarasmius pallidocephalus MI - a small marasmioid with a dark stem, easily confused with the small Collybiopsis species above. The stem is not quite as wiry or "horsehair" like as Gymnopus androsaceus, also above, which it is paler than when fresh.
probable Pseudomarasmius pallidocephalus © Andrew Parker
Genus s211 - this amazing find from WA state is very Phaeocollybia like with a conical cap and long stem, and with coloured spores like Rhodocollybia but it probably doesn't have serrated gill edges. It sequences to it own genus.
Genus s211 © Sienna McDonald
'Gymnopus' striatipes NY (=Collybia cylindrospora OR) - a clustered tan capped species with a grooved stem and gill edges that are not serrated. This needs to be moved into Rhodocollybia, although it may be one of the only Rhodocollybia without serrated gill edges.
'Gymnopus' striatipes © Jairul Rahaman
Rhodocollybia butyracea EU - dark brown cap, stem not rooting like other species but the gill edges are serrated. Our local DNA matches most EU dark capped specimens
Rhodocollybia aff. butryacea forma asema - with a paler cap. Our DNA does not match the paler capped forma asema specimens in the EU, so this variety needs a new name. Ours does not dry with a very dark disk like the "real one" does. It appears to be unique to the west coast. They have their own variety back east.
Rhodocollybia badiialba WA - with a medium brown cap. The difference can be subtle, but this species has roundish spores and FeSO4 turns the gills pink.
Rhodocollybia butyracea © Buck McAdoo, R. aff. butyracea f. asema sensu WNA © Buck McAdoo, R. badiialba © Buck McAdoo
Rhodocollybia aff. olivaceogrisea - olive grey cap, serrated gill edges, stems do not appear to root. Our one collection appears to be stocky with an umbo. It has a sequence 10 bp and 1 indel different from official collections of the Costa Rica species R. olivaceogrisea was recently found in WA. The Costa Rica species was found under oak and ours is clearly a conifer species based on the photo. It perhaps needs its own name.
Rhodocollybia aff. olivaceogrisea © Buck McAdoo
Rhodocollybia maculata group - most varieties have serrated gills, somewhat rooting stems, smell sweet like almond or cherry and stain red where handled. We supposedly have six varieties in the PNW:
var. maculata EU - pale cap, no odor, staining red. The only
variety with roundish spores. This original EU variety DNA hasn't been found in the PNW yet.
Rhodocollybia oregonensis OR - very similar with a two toned cap with a vinaceous brown disk and paler rim. Sweet odor and red staining. I don't know why this variety got its own name. They all probably deserve their own species name as the genetics are quite different for each (but they all form a clade together).
Rhodocollybia subsulcatipes WA - never found again since it was described here, and we don't have any DNA. Vinaceous brown cap, rooting stem, sweet odor and no staining.
So far, we have found 5 genetic species in the PNW, and I'm trying to match them up with the above varieties and species, but there aren't enough collections yet. We need more collections of all of them.
#1 - resembles var. occidentalis
Rhodocollybia aff. maculata #2 © NAMA and the Field Museum of Natural History, #3 © Buck McAdoo
probable R. oregonensis (#4) © Yi-Min Wang and Alan Rockefeller, #5 © Buck McAdoo
Rhodocollybia cf unakensis TN/Rhodocollybia cf extuberans EU - more species with a two-toned wine coloured disk with a paler brown rim, but these supposedly do not smell sweet nor stain red. Both of these species have been reported from the PNW, but neither have been proven. It's at least thought that at most there's one species here that has been called by both names. I have a couple of east coast sequences that might be R. unakensis, but not with any confidence. We need collections to find out if a PNW report of this species has a sequence we don't recognize.
Omphalotus and Lentinula
Not typically found in the PNW, but here for completion.
Omphalotus olivascens CA - the glow in the dark poisonous jack-o-lantern, perhaps found in southern OR.
Lentinula aff. edodes - shiitake, often cultivated here and might escape. Worldwide sequences vary by up to 6%, so I don't know if it's a complex of species or not.
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