Danny’s DNA Discoveries – Tricholomatineae Incertae Cedis of the PNW
These are in uncertain families of the suborder Tricholomatineae. They may each get their own families (seems likely), or they may be placed in an existing family. Nothing much unites these yet morphologically.
abundant common uncommon rare - colour codes match my Pictorial Key and are my opinions and probably reflect my bias of living in W WA. Rare species may be locally common in certain places at certain times.
Click here to download the FASTA data of all my DNA sequences
Summary of Interesting Results
Aspropaxillus - click to expand
One of our largest gilled mushrooms, a huge funnel-shaped clitocyboid up to 40cm across. Clitocybe maxima and Infundibulicybe geotropa may also get large. Unpleasant odor and taste. Formerly in Leucopaxillus because the gills separate easily, but although large, these are not as dense as Leucopaxillus. Amyloid spores.
Species mentioned: Aspropaxillus giganteus, septentrionalis.
Aspropaxillus septentrionalis OR - strongly unpleasant odor and taste. Possible clustered growth and possible notched gills with a decurrent tooth. We have the holotype sequence and matching sequences from WA and OR.
Aspropaxillus giganteus EU - said to never grow clustered and have more traditionally decurrent gills and a weaker unpleasant taste, but this EU species has not been confirmed from the PNW yet so we need local collections to make sure we aren't mistaking A. septentrionalis for this.
Aspropaxillus septentrionalis © Jonathan Frank
Cleistocybe gomphidioides - click to expand
'Cleistocybe' gomphidioides WA - this clitocyboid with a veil can be told apart from Catathelasma and true Cleistocybe by viscid cap, growth in fall, and a sometimes fleeting veil/ring, making it very hard to ID if you don't notice it. Strongly rancid-farinaceous. True Cleistocybe, such as Cleistocybe vernalis have a dry cap. This species needs to be moved into a new genus and family.
Hertzogia - click to expand
A newly erected genus for Hertzogia martiorum, formerly in Clitocybe and Lepista. It has true cystidia (unlike Clitocybe), pale pink smooth spores, a somewhat pinkish-orange cap and stem with a hoary white coating and strong farinaceous odor and taste.
Species mentioned: Hertzogia martiorum.
Omphaliaster - click to expand
Recognized by round spores with warty nodules, but otherwise a nondescript omphalinoid/clitocyboid with an indented hygrophanous cap that may be striate, somewhat decurrent gills and somewhat farinaceous odor and taste.
Species mentioned: Omphaliaster asterosporus, borealis.
Omphaliaster asterosporus EU - supposedly more umbilicate and less striate than O. borealis. We need local collections to prove it is here as reported.
Omphaliaster borealis EU - only one report of this in the PNW a long time ago. We don't have any sequences, not even EU sequences to compare to.
Paralepista - click to expand
Orange, strongly funnel-shaped clitocyboids with close/crowded gills and almost round spores that are off-white and finely warty (like Lepista, the name given to some Clitocybe species with similarly coloured warty spores). Bonomyces is stockier and smells farinaceous and has smooth, elliptical spores. Infundibulicybe gibba is pinkish tan but not as orange, and has smooth, white spores.
Species mentioned: Paralepista flaccida, gilva, inversa
Paralepista gilva EU - Paralepista flaccida EU and P. inversa EU (synonyms) are the lookalike species that have been reported from here. Paralepista gilva has not been reported from here, but so far all half-dozen or more local sequences match well with about a dozen EU sequences labeled P. gilva, not the dozen sequences labeled P. flaccida. Paralepista gilva may have drop-like blotches on the cap when young (see the second photo) but not all our collections show them.
If you think you actually find P. flaccida/inversa in the PNW, browner in colour and without splotches when young, save it. If you find a collection with the "peppery/spicy" odor which has been reported in some of our collections, save that too.
Paralepista gilva © Daniel Winkler and Yi-Min Wang
Pseudoomphalina - click to expand
Not only are they hard to tell from other genera (and even mushrooms in other families) they don't look anything alike themselves. They were separated from Clitocybe by having amyloid spores and cystidia along with the similar Pseudolaccaria, but some European authors say both segregate genera lack cystidia so at best the cystidia are hard to find and there are no good separating characters besides this being one of the many genera that, unlike Clitocybe, have amyloid spores.
Species mentioned: Pseudoomphalina angelesiana, intermedia, kalchbrenneri. Neohygrophorus angelesianus.
Pseudoomphalina angelesiana WA (=Neohygrophorus angelesianus) - violet-brown, viscid, decurrent small species that looks somewhat waxy.
Pseudoomphalina angelesiana © Steve Trudell
Pseudoomphalina intermedia WA - a farinaceous, dry capped little clitocyboid/omphalinoid (it's kind of intermediate in size) usually with strongly decurrent gills and an indented cap (sometimes sharply), but quite variable looking sometimes as these photos show. The similar Pseudolaccaria pachyphylla is bitter tasting. We have the WA type sequence and matching sequences from WA, OR and ID.
Pseudoomphalina kalchbrenneri EU - supposedly paler without the farinaceous odor, according to NA authors, but in Europe they say it is farinaceous. It has been reported from the PNW but we have no local sequences to prove that these reports are not mistaken P. intermedia. We need collections, as given the confusion, it might not really be here.
Pseudoomphalina intermedia © Richard Morrison, Yi-Min Wang, and Connor Dooley
Rimbachia - click to expand
Stemless oysters on moss with rudimentary or no gills, usually white. They are difficult to distinguish from some Arrhenia species (usually not white) and also Muscinupta (white with a tapered fluting "stem"). It's possible they belong in the Omphalinaceae, but we'll see.
Species mentioned: Rimbachia arachnoidea, bryophila, neckerae
Rimbachia arachnoidea NY - a tiny white cup fungus a few mm across on moss, without gills and attached from the centre of what would be the top of the cap. Round spores. We have EU sequences, but no ENA type area sequences to know for sure what this species is. Nor do we have any local sequences, we need collections.
cf Rimbachia neckerae EU - similar, but elliptical spores. Reported from the PNW once. We have one possible EU sequence of this, but it belongs in Arrhenia, not in Rimbachia, so more study is needed to see what this species really is. We have no local sequences so we need collections.
Rimbachia bryophila EU - a tiny white stemless oyster a few mm across, with rudimentary gills, growing on moss, not wood. We have three matching CA sequences, but no EU sequences to compare with to make sure ours is the same species. No PNW sequences yet either.
probable Rimbachia bryophila © Alan Rockefeller
Ripartites - click to expand
Clitocyboids with a pale brown spore print and roundish, warty spores. The mushrooms have white and pink colours, and the caps and stems are fibrillose. Note especially that this is not white spored!
Species mentioned: Ripartites tricholoma.
Ripartites 'tricholoma PNW01' - pinkish orange, with a fibrillose cap and stem. The cap margin is said to be quite bearded, something not noted on this collection. This, the most famous species in the genus, is a complex of a half dozen genetic species in the EU, so I don't know if our species is the real one or not.
Ripartites PNW02 - It is believed that our fuzzy white capped, strongly decurrent pink gilled species is unnamed, and something similar occurs in the EU as well. It was collected and sequenced once from the WA/ID border, but the sequence was dirty so we need more collections.
Ripartites 'tricholoma PNW01' © Connor Dooley, Ripartites PNW02 © Andrew Parker
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