Danny’s DNA Discoveries – Psilocybe of the PNW
This portion of the large Hymenogastraceae family (or perhaps it should be called a super-family) are usually small LBMs, have dark purple-brown spores, a viscid, hygrophanous cap, and unlike the very similar Deconica, turn blue when injured due to the presence of the hallucinogen psilocybin. They are usually smaller and more drab coloured than the similar Stropharia (brown or olive brown instead of yellow brown) which are not hygrophanous. These are the so-called "magic mushrooms" that are a controlled substance and illegal to possess, although promising trials are finally being done to prove their medicinal value.
This is an interesting example of an exception being made so the rules didn't have to be followed. All similar LBMs, hallucinogenic or not, used to be called Psilocybe. When the genetics showed that the non-hallucinogenic ones were not related and needed to be separated out, the name Deconica was chosen for a second genus. The problem was, the very first one described was Psilocybe montana, not hallucinogenic. So to follow the rules, Psilocybe would have to become the name of the non-hallucinogenic ones, and Deconica would have to be the name of the magic mushrooms. Well, too many puns had been told already about the Psilly mushrooms and there was an uproar about changing their name. Was there an uproar when Gyromitra esculenta, translating to "tasty false morel" turned out to be deadly poisonous? Nope. Was their an uproar when Chlorophyllum, translating to "green gills" ended up needing to be used to describe mostly white gilled mushrooms? Nope. But they had to hold a special vote at the 2010 International Botanical Congress (held only once every four years to deal with such business) to allow Psilocybe to continue to refer to the magic mushrooms. (The vote was unanimous).
It is not unusual for species to only differ by a couple of bp in their ITS sequences, and most of them are best differentiated microscopically.
abundant common uncommon rare - colour codes match my Pictorial Key and are my opinions and probably reflect my bias of living in W WA. Rare species may be locally common in certain places at certain times.
Summary of Interesting Results
Here are some of the newest, most interesting results of the study:
Psilocybe cyanescens UK - Our most common species has a wavy, caramel cap when fresh, known from wood chips and gardens. We have a German epitype sequence and local sequences from BC and WA.
Psilocybe allenii WA - a similar species whose cap never gets wavy. We have the WA type sequence and a couple CA sequences.
Psilocybe azurescens OR - a larger species often with an umbonate cap, mostly known from coastal areas in wood chips and sand. These three related species have similar microscopic characters.
Psilocybe PNW01 - One BC sequence from north of Whistler appears to be a unique species in this group.
Psilocybe cyanescens © Noah Siegel, Psilocybe allenii © Alan Rockefeller, Psilocybe azurescens © Paul Kroeger, Psilocybe PNW01 © Paul Kroeger
Psilocybe stuntzii WA - the species with the most well developed ring. We have a couple reliable sequences.
Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata PN - leaves a weak ring or strong ring zone behind, but perhaps best identified by its peculiar shaped cystidia under a scope. An OR and CA sequence both match an east coast OH sequence fairly well.
Psilocybe stuntzii © Michael Beug, Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata © Alan Rockefeller
Psilocybe semilanceata EU (=Psilocybe strictipes OR) - this small, mycenoid conehead grows in grass. WA and BC sequences match EU sequences fairly well. Only 2 bp in ITS separate it from the very different looking P. baeocystis, below. The few P. strictipes sequences we have, both locally and from the EU, have identical ITS, and since the descriptions are so very similar (P. strictipes is said to have a cap that may expand and slightly smaller spores) they are most likely synonyms.
Psilocybe semilanceata © Kit Scates Barnhart, Psilocybe strictipes (probably a form of P. semilanceata) © Alan Rockefeller
Psilocybe pelliculosa OR - this similar small almost as conical mushroom grows in soil. We have BC sequences of this OR native. At most 2 bp separate it from the dung species fimetaria, below.
Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa WA - with a similar conical cap that is said to flatten in age. It's unclear if this is a unique species from P. pelliculosa. We probably need an ecological and multi-gene DNA study as well as the type sequences to find out. For now, we have 2 clades in ITS that may represent these 2 species, but I'm not sure which is which.
Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa © Drew Henderson
Psilocybe baeocystis OR - another difficult to differentiate local species. Only 2 bp different in ITS from P. semilanceata, but clearly different morphologically.
Psilocybe fimetaria UK - on dung. We have an EU sequence and an couple of OR sequence that match and may represent this species. At most 2 bp separate it from the soil species P. pelliculosa, above.
Psilocybe baeocystis © Michael Beug, Psilocybe fimetaria © Alan Rockefeller
Psilocybe turficola (atrobrunnea) EU - a barely bluing, tall, reddish brown capped somewhat striate mushroom on wet ground, perhaps also best recognized microscopically, we have a Vanc. BC sequence matching a bunch of reliable EU sequences.
Psilocybe caerulipes NY - not known from the PNW before DNA found it in BC, matching a reliable NY sequence.
Litte known species - like many of them, best distinguished microscopically
Psilocybe silvatica NY - we have a sequence that may be a reliable east coast sequence, but we don't have any local sequences to prove the reports of its existence here.
Psilocybe liniformans EU - another dung species with a hemispherical cap and a peelable gill edge, reported from the PNW but we have no sequences at all to verify this or know what it is.
Psilocybe subfimetaria BC - no sequences at all yet, but as it's described from here, it is here.
Psilocybe washingtonensis WA - assumed to be active.
Psilocybe oregonensis OR - very little is known, could be a Psilocybe or Deconica.
Deconica - probably need to have a name change as I don't think they are hallucinogenic since they have not been noted to turn blue, but then again, very little is known about any of them.
Psilocybe apelliculosa UK -
Psilocybe laticystis OR -
Psilocybe sabulosa KS -
Psilocybe subborealis ID -
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