Danny’s DNA Discoveries – Hypholoma of the PNW
This portion of the large Hymenogastraceae family (or perhaps it should be called a super-family), formerly known as Naematoloma, are often yellow-brown, have non-viscid caps and purple brown spores. Not usually hygrophanous. Found on wood, moss, bogs or the ground.
Phaeonematoloma myosotis (formerly Hypholoma myosotis) has been separated out on the basis of genetics as well as a viscid cap and non-purplish spores and is found elsewhere. Other Hypholoma species may need to be moved too, but we await a multi-gene study to confirm this.
Bogbodia udu - with slightly warty spores that aren't even noticed very often, Hypholoma udum was placed into its own genus, but that doesn't seem to be born out by genetics, so some, including me, are going to wait before accepting it.
abundant common uncommon rare - colour codes match my Pictorial Key and are my opinions and probably reflect my bias of living in W WA. Rare species may be locally common in certain places at certain times.
Summary of Interesting Results
Here are some of the newest, most interesting results of the study:
Phaeonematoloma? - click to expand
First, the following Hypholomas have at least some of the viscidness and spore colour character of Phaeonematoloma, as well as sequencing somewhat close to that genus. We need a multi-gene study to confirm where these species belong. For now, I cover some of them on two pages.
Species mentioned: Phaeonematoloma myosotis. Hypholoma subochracea. Pholiota subochracea.
Phaeonematoloma myosotis EU - viscid cap and stem, plain brown spores, olive coloured, umbonate and growing in moss. This one has already been moved, and is also covered on a different page. We have EU and eastern NA sequences, but no local sequences to prove that's what's here.
Phaeonematoloma myosotis © Jens Petersen and Mycokey
Hypholoma sp. 17488154 OR - this species seems to be in a somewhat close sister relationship with Phaeonematoloma myosotis and is the most likely one to need placement there. This species is quite green, probably viscid, covered in fibrils if not scales all over the stem and grew clustered. No spore print, but it clades closer to Phaeonematoloma than other Hypholoma.
Hypholoma sp. 17859227 WA - this species was quite viscid yet appears to have dark purple brown spores, so I thought it was a Deconica. It clades near Hypholoma though, possibly closer to Phaeonematoloma but this will have to be investigated as its features are kind of half way between.
Hypholoma sp. MP6598861 OR - this was mistaken for Hypholoma elongatum, but the ITS sequence is unclear if it should be placed in Hypholoma or Phaeonematoloma. The caps look a little shiny and the gills look dark, but we don't know the viscidity or spore colour for sure.
Phaeonematoloma sp. 17488154 © Danny Miller, Hypholoma sp. 17859227 © Danny Miller, Hypholoma sp. MP6598861 © NAMA and the Field Museum of Natural History
Hypholoma subochracea WA - when the type was sequenced, this was recently moved back to Hypholoma from Pholiota (it was originally a Hypholoma), but there has not been a large enough Hypholoma/Phaeonematoloma/Bogbodia study yet to figure out its proper genus and I suspect it could be a Phaeonematoloma based on its sequence and the quite viscid cap and paler brown spores with no purple tinge. It has no known colour photos.
Hypholoma - click to expand
These species are the easiest to identify
Hypholoma fasciculare UK - clustered on wood, bright yellow with yellow-green young gills. Bitter tasting.
Hypholoma capnoides EU - clustered on wood, not as bright yellow with grey young gills. Mild tasting.
Hypholoma lateritium EU -clustered on wood, brick red fresh colours that fade. We have dozens of reliable EU sequences but over here it seems to be quite rare as it has rarely been found here (reported from BC) and never sequenced to show if it's the same thing.
Hypholoma fasciculare and capnoides © Kit Scates Barnhart
Hypholoma dispersum EU (=marginatum EU) - on woody debris on the ground, stiff, dark stem with white banding.
Hypholoma tuberosum BC - most notable for the sclerotium (nutrient ball) at the base of the stem, as in the paler spored Agrocybe arvalis, but with a cobweb veil and without white mycelium. Apparently, a single nursery in Sydney shipped peat around the world, spreading this Australian native everywhere. But it was first described from British Columbia.
Hypholoma dispersum © Richard Morrison, Hypholoma tuberosum © Noah Siegel
Hypholoma elongatum group EU (=H. elongatipes NY?) -small yellowish brown cap, long stem, in moss. We have a dozen EU sequences so we know what the DNA looks like. The first local sequence, from OR, was 3.5% different, indicating we might have a sister species here. But then a WA sequence came back only 3bp different from the EU sequences, so we appear to have both the real thing plus a sister species. There is an east coast species thought to be a synonym that might match with one or both of our species.
Hypholoma sp. Buck 85#3 WA -reported from grass with a viscid, umbonate cap and an odor of green corn. The sequence is quite short but it seems to fit closer to Hypholoma than the viscid capped Phaeonematoloma but we need more collections.
Hypholoma sp. Buck 85#3 © Buck McAdoo
These species all need local collections to compare to the type area sequences I have
Hypholoma cf udum (Bogbodia uda) EU -small olive to red-brown cap, long stem in moss. I have an eastern US ITS sequence of a collection that has an LSU sequence as well, which matches the LSU of a reliable EU sequence. In other words, we know what this is, but need to find local collections to see if they match.
Hypholoma cf polytrichi EU - very similar to Hypholoma udum, with much smaller spores. We need local collections to see if the sequences match a couple EU sequences we have.
Hypholoma cf subericaceum EU -another similar species with microscopic differences which we have EU sequences of but need local sequences to confirm our reports.
Hypholoma cf udum © Christian Schwarz
These species are little known so we need type area and local sequences (and photographs) before we can learn more.
Hypholoma epixanthum EU -
Hypholoma humidicola NY -
Hypholoma olivaceotinctum OR -this one must be here as it's described from here.
Hypholoma squalidellum NY -
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