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Danny’s DNA Discoveries – Hypholoma s.l. of the PNW
by Danny Miller

Click here for my Pictorial Key to Hypholoma


This portion of the large Hymenogastraceae family (or perhaps it should be called a super-family), formerly known as Naematoloma, are often yellow-brown, and usually have non-viscid caps and purple brown spores, but none of that is necessarily true. Not usually hygrophanous. Found on wood, moss, bogs or the ground.

Phaeonematoloma has been separated out on the basis of a viscid cap and non-purplish spores.

Bogbodia udu - with slightly warty spores that aren't even noticed very often, Hypholoma udum was placed into its own genus.

Either Hypholoma still needs to be split further (with Phaeonematoloma and Bogbodia probably remaining separate genera) or if Hypholoma is to avoid further splitting, Protostropharia will have be subsumed into Hypholoma. I do not know which species would stay in Hypholoma and which would move, but H. fasciculare is the type species of the genus, so that group of species will definitely stay.

abundant  common  uncommon  rare - colour codes match my Pictorial Key and are my opinions and probably reflect my bias of living in W WA. Rare species may be locally common in certain places at certain times.

Summary of Interesting Results

Here are some of the newest, most interesting results of the study:

  • TBD


Phaeonematoloma and other viscid capped species - a few species aren't like the others - they are viscid and have spores without purple tones, like Pholiota except growing on the ground or in moss instead of on wood.

Phaeonematoloma myosotis EU - viscid conical cap, viscid, stiff, rooting stem, plain brown spores, olive coloured and growing in moss. We have EU and eastern NA sequences, and one local OR sequence matching them within a couple bp, indels and ambiguous locations.

Phaeonematoloma PNW01 - this species is in a somewhat close sister relationship with Phaeonematoloma myosotis. This species is quite olive green, viscid, and conical with a very stiff stem like P. myosotis, but can perhaps be distinguished by olive-yellow gills and a stem covered in fibrils if not scales. It was found once clustered and once solitary. The spores probably don't have purple tones.

'Hypholoma' PNW02 -reported from grass with a viscid, umbonate cap, an odor of green corn, and pale gills suggesting the spores do not have purple tones. We only have ITS1 sequenced so far of one WA collection. It does not appear to be near Phaeonematoloma.

'Hypholoma' subochracea WA - Hypholoma subochracea was long ago moved to Pholiota because of its viscid cap, but when the type was sequenced, it was found to be near Hypholoma and moved back there. It has a quite viscid cap and brown spores with no purple tinge. It grows on wood, explaining why it was mistaken for a Pholiota. It has no known colour photos. It clades far away from all other species, and may need a genus of its own.

Phaeonematoloma myosotis © Connor Dooley

Phaeonematoloma PNW01 © Danny Miller (3 images)

'Hypholoma' PNW02 © Buck McAdoo


Dry capped, purplish spored, normal Hypholoma

Hypholoma fasciculare UK - clustered on wood, bright yellow with yellow-green young gills. Bitter tasting.

Hypholoma capnoides EU - clustered on wood, not as bright yellow with grey young gills. Mild tasting.

Hypholoma lateritium EU -clustered on wood, brick red fresh colours that fade. We have dozens of reliable EU sequences but over here it seems to be quite rare as it has rarely been found here (reported from BC) and never sequenced to show if it's the same thing.

Hypholoma fasciculare and capnoides © Kit Scates Barnhart


Hypholoma dispersum EU (=marginatum EU) - on woody debris on the ground, stiff, dark stem with white banding.

Hypholoma 'dispersum PNW04' - this somewhat nondescript species on wet sedge and leaf debris is 3% different in ITS from H. dispersum. An ID sequence is 4 bp different than an OR sequence, but they both have this habitat.

'Hypholoma' tuberosum BC - most notable for the sclerotium (nutrient ball) at the base of the stem, as in the paler spored Agrocybe arvalis, but with a cobweb veil and without white mycelium. Apparently, a single nursery in Sydney shipped peat around the world, spreading this Australian native everywhere, but was first described from British Columbia. We don't have any local sequenced, photographed collections yet. It stands alone in the tree and may be one of the species requiring a genus change.

Hypholoma radicosum EU - recognizable by a long pseudorhiza (extended stem). It is known from the EU, ENA, and AK and now a sequence supposedly from WA. We need sequenced local collections.

Hypholoma dispersum © Richard Morrison,     H. 'dispersum PNW04' © Connor Dooley (2 images)

unsequenced 'Hypholoma' tuberosum © Noah Siegel,     Hypholoma radicosum (from AK, pseudorhiza not shown) © iNaturalist user profinite


Hypholoma elongatum (=H. elongatipes NY?) -small yellowish brown cap, long stem, in moss. We have a dozen EU sequences so we know what the DNA looks like, and a WA sequence that matches quite well. The east coast H. elongatipes may be a synonym.

Hypholoma PNW03 - this was mistaken for Hypholoma elongatum both times it was collected, but the ITS sequence is quite distinct. It seems to have richer, darker colours on the cap and stem, but the stem isn't quite like H. dispersum. The gills glow in UV. We should test H. elongatum for that.

Hypholoma PNW05 - one unique ID collection.

Hypholoma elongatum © Buck McAdoo and Connor Dooley,     Hypholoma PNW03 © Connor Dooley (2 images),     H. PNW05 © Ed Barge


These next species all need local collections to compare to the type area sequences I have

Bogbodia uda (Hypholoma udum) EU -small olive to red-brown cap, long stem in moss. It has slightly warty spores, and may live outside Hypholoma. I have an eastern US ITS sequence of a collection that has an LSU sequence as well, which matches the LSU of a reliable EU sequence. In other words, we know what this is, but need to find local collections to see if they match. Stropharia semigloboides, currently thought to be a Protostropharia, may clade closer to Bogbodia than to Protostropharia.

Hypholoma cf polytrichi EU - very similar macroscopically to Hypholoma udum, with much smaller spores. We need local collections to see if the sequences match a couple EU sequences we have.

Hypholoma cf subericaceum EU -another similar species with microscopic differences which we have EU sequences of but need local sequences to confirm our reports.


unsequenced Bogbodia uda © Christian Schwarz


These species are little known so we need type area and local sequences (and photographs) before we can learn more.

Hypholoma epixanthum EU -

Hypholoma humidicola NY -

Hypholoma olivaceotinctum OR -this one must be here as it's described from here.

Hypholoma squalidellum NY -


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