Danny’s DNA Discoveries – Alnicola (Naucoria), Meottomyces
and Phaeonematoloma of the PNW
(there's not much call for a picture key of species)
Here are a few interesting miscellaneous genera in the large Hymenogastraceae family (or perhaps it should be called a super-family).
Alnicola (Naucoria) - unusual LBMs that are mycorrhizal, perhaps you'll be able to recognize them from among the myraid other LBMs by their tendency to have a flat cap and grow under alder and willow. Naucoria seems to be the older name, but some sources are still using Alnicola. I await a final ruling.
Meottomyces - only recently discovered in the PNW, they are small to medium sized on the ground with a greasy to sticky cap and and no unusual odor (unlike the similar Hebeloma).
Phaeonematoloma - a little more slender small to medium mushroom, definitely a viscid cap (and stem) and brown spores. Our most common one is olive coloured, umbonate and growing in moss.
abundant common uncommon rare - colour codes match my Pictorial Key and are my opinions and probably reflect my bias of living in W WA. Rare species may be locally common in certain places at certain times.
Summary of Interesting Results
Here are some of the newest, most interesting results of the study:
Alnicola (Naucoria) - click to expand
For a non descript LBM, Alnicola has been studied quite extensively in Europe by Moreau, so we have good sequences of many species... yet still many of ours our turning out to be different undescribed species.
Alnicola cf escharoides EU - our most common species, with a dozen sequences from WA and BC, is over 1% different than the many EU sequences we have.
Alnicola aff. escharoides EU - Alaska has a sequence 4 bp from the actual EU A. escharoides, but I don't know if it represents the real thing or a sister species.
Alnicola sp. 1/sp. 2/ sp. 3 - We have one sequence each of three species found in northern BC, southern BC and WA respectively. We don't have photographs or descriptions yet, so we need more sequences to find out if they are valid sequences.
Alnicola badia/xanthophylla EU - one northern BC sequence is between these 2 species, 2 bp and 1 indel from from A. badia and 1 bp and 3 indels from A. xanthophylla. Alnicola longicystis is also very close to these species.
Alnicola luteolofibrillosa EU - pale gills and lots of white thread-like veil material all over the cap and stem. Moreau has officially reported a WA sequence of this EU species.
Alnicola cf escharoides © NAMA and the Field Museum of Natural History
Alnicola amarescens/geraniolens EU - under willow, brownish orange cap drying to pale. Odor of geraniums. The first is bitter, the second is mild tasting. these two species don't seem to be distinguishable very well by ITS, and this one WA collection matches them both quite well and may be one of those two species. Alnicola tantilla EU is also very close in ITS. These species are outside of Moreau's definition of Alnicola s.s., but sister to it and will probably stay in this genus.
Alnicola amarescens/geraniolens © NAMA and the Field Museum
Alnicola cf salilicola EU - also recognized by being associated with willow, not alder. reported from the PNW, but we have no sequences to know if the IDs were correct. This clades outside of the genus, and will probably require a new name, unless Hymenogaster (which is also polyphyletic) and Alnicola are combined. This is now called section /Salicicola or /Bohemica. It should be noted that Alnicola submelinoides, not yet known from the PNW is in a third clade probably needing a new name, in section /Submelinoides.
Meottomyces - click to expand
Meottomyces dissimulans UK - one UK sequence matches 3 CA sequences and our 1 known WA collection's sequence. So perhaps we do have the real species. Smith described Pholiota mutans MI and Pholiota striatula CO, which are now assumed to be Meottomyces species. Neither were recorded from the PNW, but it should be investigated if these are distinct species or just synonyms of Meottomyces dissimulans.
Meottomyces dissimulans © Derek Hevel
Phaeonematoloma - click to expand
I also include some Hypholomas besides Phaeonematoloma myosotis (like Hypholoma subochracea and some undescribed species) that have at least some of the viscidness and spore colour character of Phaeonematoloma, that sequence somewhat close to that genus. We need a multi-gene study to confirm where these species belong. For now, I cover some of them on two pages.
Phaeonematoloma myosotis EU - viscid cap and stem, plain brown spores, olive coloured, umbonate and growing in moss. This one has already been moved, and is also covered on a different page. We have EU and eastern NA sequences, but no local sequences to prove that's what's here.
Phaeonematoloma myosotis © Jens Petersen and Mycokey
Hypholoma sp. 17488154 OR - this species seems to be in a somewhat close sister relationship with Phaeonematoloma myosotis and is the most likely one to need placement there. This species is quite green, probably viscid, covered in fibrils if not scales all over the stem and grew clustered. No spore print, but it clades closer to Phaeonematoloma than other Hypholoma.
Hypholoma sp. 17859227 WA - this species was quite viscid yet appears to have dark purple brown spores, so I thought it was a Deconica. It clades near Hypholoma though, possibly closer to Phaeonematoloma but this will have to be investigated as its features are kind of half way between.
Hypholoma sp. MP6598861 OR - this was mistaken for Hypholoma elongatum, but the ITS sequence is unclear if it should be placed in Hypholoma or Phaeonematoloma. The caps look a little shiny and the gills look dark, but we don't know the viscidity or spore colour for sure.
Phaeonematoloma sp. 17488154 © Danny Miller, Hypholoma sp. 17859227 © Danny Miller, Hypholoma sp. MP6598861 © NAMA and the Field Museum of Natural History
Hypholoma subochracea WA - when the type was sequenced, this was recently moved back to Hypholoma from Pholiota (it was originally a Hypholoma), but there has not been a large enough Hypholoma/Phaeonematoloma/Bogbodia study yet to figure out its proper genus and I suspect it could be a Phaeonematoloma based on its sequence and the quite viscid cap and paler brown spores with no purple tinge. It has no known colour photos.
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