Danny’s DNA Discoveries – Gloeophyllales of the PNW
While most polypores (the pale fleshed ones) are found in the Polyporales, and some dark fleshed polypores are in a second order, the Hymenochaetales, there are a few dark fleshed polypores left over for this third order. Like the other two orders, gilled mushrooms are found here too, even a "gilled polypore". Of course, every order has crusts in it, and this is no exception.
Gloeophyllum s.l. (Gloeophyllum, Osmoporus and Griseopora) - a few dark fleshed polypores, including some with gills.
Neolentinus and Heliocybe - gilled mushrooms growing on wood with decurrent gills and serrated gill edges all like Lentinellus, but unlike Lentinellus, Neolentinus might have a more regular, central stem >5 mm thick. Heliocybe has a thin central stem, but it is the very distinctive sunray mushroom.
Veluticeps s.l. (Veluticeps and Columnocystis) - reflexed crusts with a grey fertile surface on conifers.
abundant common uncommon rare - colour codes match my Pictorial Key and are my opinions and probably reflect my bias of living in W WA. Rare species may be locally common in certain places at certain times.
Polypores - Gloeophyllum, Osmoporus and Griseopora - click to expand
A few dark fleshed polypores, including some with gills.
Species mentioned: Gloeophyllum sepiarium, trabeum. Osmoporus odoratus, protractus. Griseopora carbonaria.
Gloeophyllum cf sepiarium EU - a medium sized but fairly thick fleshed "gilled" polypore (sometimes maze-like) with rusty brown flesh and a fuzzy zoned cap. It can grow from timber as well as wild wood, I often see it on trail boardwalks. We don't have EU sequences to prove we have the real species here, but for now that is the assumption.
Gloeophyllum cf trabeum EU - with thinner, more crowded "gills" that may be pore-like in places, and a smoother cap, this species is only rarely reported. We think we know what the ITS sequence looks like, but we don't have EU type area sequences nor any local collections to prove that this species is here.
Gloeophyllum sepiarium © Leah Bendlin
Osmoporus protractus EU - species with pores to maze-like pores (not quite as gill-like as G. sepiarium may become) live in their own clade and probably deserve their own genus. This species has a smoother cap (zoned or not). Kout provided reliable sequences of this EU species and one collection from OR matches them within 2 bp.
Osmoporus odoratus EU - similar, with a strong odor of black licorice. Rumours of this species being here have not been verified and most are suspected to be mistaken identity with O. protractus. We have reliable EU sequences thanks to Kout to compare to, but no local collections. One sequence may or may not be from Idaho. If it is here, it's probably only in the Rockies.
Osmoporus protractus © Jonathan Frank
Griseoporia carbonaria EU - a mostly resupinate pore surface on charred wood, easily detached, with large hexagonal pores. One BC sequence matches EU sequences. This species may be sister to all of Osmoporus, but without strong support, it also may deserve its own genus. The form and ecology are certainly unique.
Gilled mushrooms - Neolentinus and Heliocybe - click to expand
Gilled mushrooms growing on wood with decurrent gills and serrated gill edges all like Lentinellus, but unlike Lentinellus, Neolentinus might have a more regular, central stem >5 mm thick. Heliocybe has a thin central stem, but it is the very distinctive sunray mushroom.
Species mentioned: Neolentinus adhaerens, kauffmanii, lepideus, ponderosus. Heliocybe sulcata.
Neolentinus lepideus EU - a fairly stocky mushroom with a scaly brown cap, partial veil and distant gills. Nicknamed the "train wrecker" for its ability to grow from railroad ties. Sequences all over Eurasia match each other, but we still need local collections sequenced to verify that ours match too.
Neolentinus ponderosus ID - a potentially gigantic mushroom with no partial veil and more crowded gills. The caps have been recorded at more than 50cm across and are pale and smoother when young but get darker and scalier in age. The stems may be up to 10 cm thick!
unsequenced Neolentinus lepideus © Steve Trudell, N. ponderosus © Joseph Cohen and Wren Hudgins (2 images)
Neolentinus kauffmanii CA - a small, pinkish tan species, easily mistaken for Lentinellus micheneri except the gills are closer and the stem is usually at least 5mm thick.
Neolentinus cf adhaerens EU - very similar, and closely related, but with more distant gills and covered with a sticky red-brown resin. The DNA seems to be the same across North America but we still need EU sequences to verify we have the same species as them.
Neolentinus kauffmanii © Jacob Kalichman, N. adhaerens © Lauren Ré (2 images)
Heliocybe sulcata OH - a distinctive mushroom with prominent "sunray" cap ribbing. It is to be looked for in the Rocky Mountains of BC and ID (it is so distinctive I'm inclined to believe the report from BC). We have no local collections sequenced to prove it is here, but collections from all over the world have very similar ITS DNA so if it is here, this is probably the proper name. My ITS tree does not make it clear that this is distinct from Neolentinus, but other studies have shown that it is, and my ITS only tree is not always able to hold Neolentinus together even though multi-gene studies have shown it is monophyletic.
Heliocybe sulcata from NM © Christian Schwarz
Crusts - Veluticeps and Columnocystis - click to expand
Reflexed crusts (half attached to the wood and half bent away) with a grey fertile undersurface found on conifers.
Species mentioned: Veluticeps abietina, fimbriata. Columnocystis ambigua.
Veluticeps fimbriata group - we have 2 species, about 1.5% apart in ITS. According to Garcia-Sandoval, #2 may be the real thing, but it should be verified that they are distinct species and if so, what the real V. fimbriata from MT is. #2 appears to be fuzzy capped, but that's based on one collection.
Veluticeps abietina EU - differs microscopically. One Idaho sequence matches a handful of EU sequences well, but we don't have any photos yet.
Columnocystis ambigua NY - also differs microscopically. It is rumoured from ID but we need local collections to see if it's really here. We also need more reliable DNA of different genes from back east to answer the question of whether or not this needs its own genus, and if so, what order that genus is in. One study suggested this is the Polyporales, not the Gloeophyllales, but they weren't necessarily looking at the right mushroom, as they said the same thing about V. abietina, and they definitely misidentified whatever species they had when they called it V. abietina. I have some east coast sequences that seem to be this species, and the DNA is quite different from Veluticeps, but with ITS only, it's unclear which of the two orders it belongs in.
Veluticeps 'fimbriata PNW01' © Roo Vandegrift and Yi-Min Wang, V. 'fimbriata PNW02' © Bee Marcotte
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