Danny’s DNA Discoveries – Hydnaceae of the PNW
Did you ever think you found a chanterelle and then looked underneath it and saw teeth instead of veins and realized it was a hedgehog? But that it tasted as good and about the same anyway? Hedgehogs' closest relatives are chanterelles, so you really can think of them as chanterelles with spines. Hydnums were named before chanterelles, so the family name is named after the hedgehogs instead of the chanterelles.
There are many unrelated false chanterelles and false hedgehogs not covered here. Real chanterelles are smoothish capped orange and black species with a particular veined to wrinkled look under the cap that runs strongly decurrent down the stem. False chanterelles have true gills or a scaly cap with a different kind of veining. Real hedgehogs have spines under the cap, "clean" orange to white cap colours and a white spore print. False hedgehogs have more sordid colours.
A good overview of the Cantharellales can be found here.
abundant common uncommon rare - colour codes match my Pictorial Key and are my opinions and probably reflect my bias of living in W WA. Rare species may be locally common in certain places at certain times.
Summary of Interesting Results
Here are some of the newest, most interesting results of the study:
Cantharellus - click to expand
Strongly decurrent veins/ridges under the cap that are more blunt than true gills. Orange coloured smooth cap. Solid stems, unlike Craterellus.
Cantharellus formosus BC - our most slender species, uniformly orange, abundant west of the cascades. Formerly, it was thought that we had the EU species Cantharellus cibarius here, until we described our own species.
Cantharellus cascadensis OR - east of the cascades and southern. Yellow fading to white in the centre, with pale veins. Stocky, clavate stem.
Cantharellus roseocanus BC - pale cap with a hint of rose. Veins brighter than the cap. Often but not always with spruce and Pine. Also stocky.
Cantharellus formosus © Steve Trudell, C. cascadensis © Noah Siegel, C. roseocanus © Steve Trudell
Cantharellus subalbidus WA/OR/CA - this stocky species starts out all white, but stains orange in age.
Cantharellus californicus CA - a uniformly orange stocky species. Our only hardwood species, found often with oaks in CA and southern OR.
Cantharellus subalbidus © Noah Siegel, C. californicus © Christian Schwarz
Craterellus - click to expand
Strongly decurrent veins or wrinkles (sometimes almost smooth). Orange or black colours. Hollow stems, unlike Cantharellus.
Craterellus calicornucopioides CA - deeply funnel shaped "black trumpet" mushroom with subtle wrinkling down the entire stem, but no veins nor gills. Craterellus cornucopioides is the European species. Our west coast species has a unique name only because ITS DNA differs by >3%, although Michael Kuo said "it seems different to me". It would be nice if somebody could elucidate a morphological or ecological difference to help tell them apart besides the location they were found. Craterellus fallax is the eastern NA species that does have slight morphological differences. C. calicornucopioides ranges from BC to CA.
Craterellus atrocinereus CA - this black trumpet is less tubular and has prominent veining and is even rarer in the PNW. Craterellus cinereus is the EU species, from which it is also separated by mostly DNA, which is unfortunate. It is known from OR and CA.
Craterellus neotubaeformis n.p. - the "winter chanterelle" is small orange-brown hollow stemmed species. It too differs from the EU Craterellus tubaeformis mostly through DNA. Unlike the other two, this one has not had its new name formalized yet.
Craterellus calicornucopioides © Christian Schwarz, Craterellus atrocinereus © Jonathan Frank, Craterellus neotubaeformis n.p. © Steve Trudell
Hydnum and Sistotrema - click to expand
Spines under the cap. Clean pale orange colouration and white spores. A recent study clarified most of the species of Hydnum around the world and can be found here. Unfortunately, many can only be distinguished microscopically at best or by DNA at worst, and morphological and ecological differences have not always been found to back up the DNA differences yet. They are not going to be identifiable on sight.
Sistotrema cf confluens EU - a small mushroom (<2cm) with odd teeth that are often somewhat poroid, an eccentric stem and a white to pale orange cap. Most other Sistotrema species are crusts and unrelated and will need to be moved to other genera. This species is probably closely related to Hydnum and in the same family, but it's possible it might go into it its own family if it turns out to be less related than thought. It seems to be a species complex in the EU. We don't have local DNA yet, but I suspect it's going to be different enough to merit its own species name.
Sistotrema cf confluens © Andrew Parker
Stocky Hydnums (subgenus Hydnum) - larger species up to 15 cm or more across with decurrent spines.
Hydnum olympicum WA/Hydnum washingtonianum WA - distinguished by spore size. H. olympicum is known from WA and H. washingtonianum is known from BC, WA and CA.
Hydnum washingtonianum © Marty Kranabetter
Slender Hydnums (subgenus Rufescentes, section Rufescentes) - smaller species <5 cm across, with non-decurrent spines.
Hydnum aff umbilicatum/Hydnum oregonense OR/Hydnum melitosarx AK - H. aff umbilicatum differs from the EU species by 2% in ITS and is known from WA. H. oregonense is known from BC and OR. H. melitosarx is known from AK, WA and OR.
Hydnum sp. 1 - 4% different than Hydnum melitosarx, this undescribed species is probably in this section. It was not found in the study so nothing is known about it. Two sequences have been found in WA, but I don't have a photo (not that that would help).
Hydnum umbilicatum group © Steve Trudell
Intermediate Hydnums (subgenus Rufescentes, section Magnorufescentes) - potentially stocky or slender, with decurrent spines. Without good pictures, and only descriptions, these species in this clade are little known.
Hydnum aff jussii - medium to large with decurrent spines, a sister to the EU species differing by >2% in ITS. It is known from the interior (ID and BC).
Hydnum melleopallidum BC - small to medium, but the spines are decurrent. It is known from boreal BC and WA.
Hydnum melleopallidum © Shannon Adams
Hydnum sp. 2 - sequenced from OR and CA, this genetic species is not close enough to any other species for me to know what section it is in, or what it looks like. Nothing is really known about it.
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