Danny’s DNA Discoveries – Biannulariaceae of the PNW (Tricholomatineae)
A few clitocyboid genera are in this family, including both clitocyboid genera with rings, and they are all farinaceous. Biannularia is an newer genus name for Catathelasma, but Biannulariaceae is an older family name than Catathelasmataceae, and unfortunately families have their own order of precedence and don't follow the precedence of genera, so the family name does not match the name of anything inside the family anymore. The name comes from the double veil of Catathelasma.
It should be noted that a 4 gene tree in a 2018 paper on Bonomyces found that Catathelasma stood alone in this family, with Cleistocybe and Bonomyces occupying their own family position with fairly high support, but that another 4 gene tree in a 2020 paper on the Biannulariaceae found even stronger support that these three genera do belong together in the same family, so that is how I am treating them. My ITS only tree (much less reliable) is of course unable to show evidence that they all belong together.
abundant common uncommon rare - colour codes match my Pictorial Key and are my opinions and probably reflect my bias of living in W WA. Rare species may be locally common in certain places at certain times.
Catathelasma - click to expand
Large, ponderous mostly all white mushrooms with white spores, strongly decurrent gills, a tapered stem and a sort of double-ring (bi-annular). Farinaceous. Inexperienced people think they are Matsutake, but that has a very different odor and notched gills.
Species mentioned: Catathelasma imperiale, ventricosum, evanescens, singeri.
Catathelasma ventricosum AL - dry cap, paler colours than C. singeri. We don't have SE USA sequences from near Alabama to prove that this is what our species is, but sequences up and down the west coast and from the NE are the same as ours. One 2020 paper declares that C. ventricosum is the species in the PNW, while another 2020 paper leaves open the possibility that AL sequences might turn out to be different. We'll want a type sequence to prove it one way or the other. One Arkansas sequence purporting to be C. ventricosum is different, but appears corrupt.
Catathelasma evanescens WY (=Catathelasma singeri CO, C. 'imperiale' misapplied) - viscid capped with some darker tones, at least when young, and even larger. Collections of this are currently going by the wrong name, Catathelasma imperiale, a European sister species not yet known from here. For almost 100 years we've been calling this C. imperiale. Back in the 70s, C. singeri was described from CO as a C. imperiale lookalike, but nobody in the PNW paid attention nor realized that it would be logical if that was our species instead. A couple of supposed C. imperiale sequences from WA and a couple from OR prove that our local species is indeed C. singeri. However, a 2020 paper described a WA epitype sequence of the older species Catathelasma evanescens WY, and it is the same as C. singeri, so the oldest, best name for our 'imperiale'-like species is C. evanescens.
Catathelasma ventricosum © Kathleen Dobson, probable C. evanescens © Michael Beug
Cleistocybe - click to expand
The other clitocyboid genus with a veil, not surprisingly related. Strongly farinaceous. True Cleistocybe have a dry cap. A species that needs to be moved into a new genus and family has a viscid cap.
Species mentioned: Cleistocybe vernalis, gomphidioides.
Cleistocybe vernalis WA - a spring species with a dry, leathery-scaly cap
'Cleistocybe' gomphidioides WA - a fall species with a viscid cap. Not only does it not belong in Cleistocybe, but it so far appears to belong in its own family. I can confirm this result from a 2020 Biannulariaceae paper.
Cleistocybe vernalis © Andrew Parker, 'Cleistocybe' gomphidioides © MycoPortal
Bonomyces - click to expand
An orange clitocyboid with a strong farinaceous odor. The lack of a veil makes it hard to place in this family, but similar orange clitocyboids don't have as strong a farinaceous odor (Infundibulicybe) and/or have thinner, less stocky stems (Paralepista).
Species mentioned: Bonomyces sinopicus, subsinopicus.
Bonomyces cf. subsinopicus EU - A 2018 paper said that Bonomyces subsinopicus EU's type sequence showed that it was the same as B. sinopicus, but that is not true, as the sequences are 4% different. We need local collections to see which one (if either) our species of Bonomyces is; one sequence is in the pipeline now. An Arizona sequence was Bonomyces subsinopicus, so if the two species are not the same, maybe ours is that one too.
Bonomyces cf. subsinopicus © Andrew Parker
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