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Danny’s DNA Discoveries – Biannulariaceae of the PNW (Tricholomatineae)
by Danny Miller


A few clitocyboid genera are allegedly in this family, including both clitocyboid genera with rings, and they are all farinaceous.

Catathelasma - sometimes ponderously large whitish mushrooms with a sort of double-ring. Farinaceous.

Cleistocybe - the other ringed clitocyboids, not as large. Farinaceous.

Bonomyces - orange, strongly farinaceous somewhat stocky clitocyboids otherwise difficult to separate from Clitocybe and its other segregate genera (of which this is one).

Biannularia is an newer genus name for Catathelasma, but Biannulariaceae is an older family name than Catathelasmataceae, and unfortunately families have their own order of precedence and don't follow the precedence of genera, so the family name does not match the name of anything inside the family anymore. The name comes from the double veil of Catathelasma.

It should be noted that a 4 gene tree in the 2018 paper describing Bonomyces found that Catathelasma stood alone in this family, with Cleistocybe and Bonomyces definitely not in the same family. But another 4 gene tree in the 2020 paper on the Biannulariaceae and Callistosporiaceae found strong support that these three genera do belong together in the same family. Normally, multi-gene studies don't disagree like this, so I don't know what to think, but for now I am tentatively treating the three genera together on this page. My ITS only trees of the sub-order Tricholomatineae are of course not able to place these genera anywhere with confidence.

abundant common uncommon rare - colour codes match my Pictorial Key and are my opinions and probably reflect my bias of living in W WA. Rare species may be locally common in certain places at certain times.

Click here to download the FASTA data of all my DNA sequences

Catathelasma - click to expand

Large, dense, ponderous, mostly white mushrooms with white spores, strongly decurrent gills, a tapered stem, and a sort of double-ring (bi-annular). Farinaceous. Inexperienced people might think they are Matsutake, but that has a very different odor and notched gills.

Species mentioned: Catathelasma imperiale, ventricosum, evanescens, singeri.

Cleistocybe - click to expand

The other clitocyboid genus with a veil. Strongly farinaceous. True Cleistocybe have a dry cap. A species that needs to be moved into a new genus and family has a viscid cap.

Species mentioned: Cleistocybe vernalis, gomphidioides.

Bonomyces - click to expand

An orange clitocyboid with a strong farinaceous odor. The lack of a veil makes it hard to place in this family, but similar orange clitocyboids don't have as strong a farinaceous odor (Infundibulicybe) and/or have thinner, less stocky stems (Paralepista).

Species mentioned: Bonomyces sinopicus, subsinopicus.


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