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Strophariaceae s.l.

These are all saprophytic. This page describes those mushrooms obviously belonging to the Stropharia family, others like Pholiota and Agrocybe are covered separately, and Mythicomyces/Stagnicola look like Stropharia but are actually related to Psathyrella.

A tiny "LBM" on fabric (or sometimes wood) with a very dark spore print might be Melanotus.

Key to Strophariaceae:

 

Stropharia - usually viscid cap, not hygrophanous, usually found on the ground, dung or in grass (and rarely on wood). They all have a partial veil, sometimes leaving a ring and sometimes just leaving a ring zone. Usually medium to large size (bigger than Deconica). The smaller species that could be confused with Deconica have a hemispherical yellow cap, and similar Hypholomas are not usually viscid.

S. ambigua - bright yellow cap, white fluffy veil material everywhere (washes off) not present on the similar, smaller Leratiomyces percevalii. No real ring, big, <15cm.

S. hornemannii - yellow-brown cap, fluffy stem, ring. <12cm.

S. rugosoannulata - red cap fading to yellow-brown, then hard to ID, smooth stem, ring. <15cm.

S. kauffmanii - scaly, dry dark brown cap and stem. Ring. <15cm.

S. aeruginosa - blue/green cap fading to yellow, ring, white gill edges. <6cm.

S. caerula - gill edges not white, fades faster, less ring. <6cm.

S. pseudocyanea - smaller, <2cm, pointier blue-green cap fading quickly to straw.

S. coronilla - in grass, stocky with yellow cap. Striate ring. <6cm.

S. albonitens - white cap with yellow tones. Ring. Fluffy stem. <5cm.

S. albivelata - warm brown spore print, might be sought on that page. <8cm. Red brown, ring.

These small, hemispherical yellow Stropharias with long viscid stems in grass and dung are unrelated and have been moved, or will be moved, to a new genus, Protostropharia. They are all <5cm, but Psilocybe and Deconica do not have round yellow caps. Hypholoma is very similar, but not usually viscid.

P. semiglobata - in dung. Long viscid stem. Similar to Agrocybe pediades. <5cm.

S. stercoraria/alcis - very similar. S. stercoraria may in fact be the same; S. alcis is found on moose dung.

S. umbonatescens - pointy umbonate cap, resembling Psilocybe but yellower.

S. semigloboides - yellow cap, even longer, rooting viscid stem. Not in dung. Smaller, <1.5cm.

S. silvatica - more brownish yellow than S. semigloboides.

Leratiomyces - another group recently separated from Stropharia, containing several yellow to orange-red species. They are not usually viscid.

L. ceres (S. aurantiaca) - red-orange in gardens and wood chips. Stem bruises reddish-orange. <5cm.

L. percevalii (riparius) - dull yellow, <9cm, smaller than S. ambigua, no fluffy veil material, weak veil, smooth stem.

L. magnivelaris - stronger ring? Probably the same species.

L. squamosus - small, <5cm, yellow with shaggy stem and ring.

L. squamosus var. thraustus - red-orange version. <7cm.

Hemistropharia - red-orange to dark brown with scaly cap and stem. Brown spores like Pholiota. Probably actually in the Crepitodus/Inocybe clade.

Hemistropharia albocrenulata - viscid, red-orange scaly cap and stem, brown droplets often on the gills, ring zone, mostly on hardwood. <10cm.

 

Hypholoma - (formerly known as Naematoloma) - non-viscid caps separate these from all the others (besides Mythicomyces/Stagnicola which have dark stems), but still, they can be very difficult to separate from Deconica and Protostropharia. They have a very weak veil. The veil is sometimes cobwebby like the cortina of Cortinarius and never leaves much material on the cap or stem. Often yellow-brown in colour. Found on wood, moss, bogs or the ground. Some of the moss species have paler spores than the others and could be searched for in the brown spored pages. Not usually hygrophanous.

H. capnoides - grey young gills, clustered on logs.

H. fasciculare - yellow-green young gills, bitter, clustered on logs.

H. lateritium - brick red caps clustered on logs.

H. dispersum (marginatum) - on woody debris on the ground, stiff, dark stem with white banding.

H. radicosum - recognized by long rooting stem.

H. tuberosum - sclerotium (nutrient ball)  at the base of the stem, as in Agrocybe arvalis.

I'm afraid these next species (and others not included here) are very nondescript and difficult to identify as Hypholoma, never mind to differentiate macroscopically, but let's have a go.

H. elongatum (elongatipes) - found in Sphagnum moss, a little more yellowish cap than the others? Somewhat hygrophanous.

H. polytrichi - non-descript in Polytrichum moss.

Phaeonematoloma (Hypholoma) myosotis - usually an olive brown cap, in moss.

H. subericaeum - in poor, wet soil, a little more red-brown. Pruinose stem apex.

Hypholoma udum - also in wet, mossy bogs, variable cap and stem colour.

 

Mythicomyces/Stagnicola - look like a cross between Hypholoma, Xeromphalina and Phaeocollybia, with dry caps. Mythicomyces has dark spores like Hypholoma and a two-toned somewhat black horny stem like Xeromphalina. Stagnicola is very similar with brown spores and might be looked for in the LBMs. They resemble the Strophariaceae, but are actually in the Psathyrellaceae. <2.5cm across

Mythicomyces corneipes - hygrophanous.

Stagnicola perplexa

 

Psilocybe - viscid capped mushrooms mostly with a peelable cap cuticle, which can separate them from Hypholoma, and hygrophanous, which can separate them from Stropharia. Small mushrooms (usually <5cm but sometimes bigger) that grow on the ground, grass, gardens or dung but mostly in wood chips unless noted. They have a veil that is often cobwebby like the cortina of Cortinarius that may or may not leave a ring on the stem. They often smell farinaceous. The larger ones can be mistaken for Stropharia but the colour and shape is usually different. They are infamous for parts that can stain blue-green due to the presence of psilocybin and psilocin, the hallucinogenic substances that give these their nickname "magic mushrooms". Psilocybin can also be found in some Pluteus, Conocybe, Inocybe, Gymnopilus and Panaeolus but by far most of the hallucinogenic species are found in Psilocybe. The non-active species are called Psilocybe by some authors, but DNA evidence has shown them not to be that closely related, so they are getting their own genus, Deconica. Unfortunately you may have to admire these from a distance because possession of anything that contains these substances in the U.S. is a federal offense. People have died accidentally eating deadly poisonous lookalikes like Galerina and Conocybe. These are very difficult to tell apart.

P. cyanescens - caramel colour, wavy cap, <5cm.

P. strictipes - mostly in grass, cap not wavy.

P. baeocystis - similar, darker olive when wet, incurved but not as wavy cap margin.

P. cyanofibrillosa/allenii - much like P. cyanescens, deep chestnut drying light brown, veil leaves a faint ring zone. Less wavy cap.

P. azurescens - our largest, up to 10cm, somewhat conical.

P. stuntzii - stem has a ring, <5cm.

P. ovoideocystidia - similar with a weaker, wispy ring.

P. semilanceata - conehead, mostly in grass, <2.5cm. Similar to Stropharia umbonatescens.

P. pelliculosa - similar but not as pointed, in soil, <2.5cm.

P. subfimetaria/fimetaria - in dung in grass, veil leaves a ring zone/ring on the stem, <2.5cm.

 

Deconica - very much like Psilocybe, and once considered Psilocybe, but they do not stain blue anywhere because they do not contain psilocybin. Viscid capped, hygrophanous mushrooms mostly with a peelable cap cuticle, which can separate them from Hypholoma and Stropharia. Small mushrooms (usually <2.5cm unless noted) that grow on the ground, wood chips, grass, gardens or dung. They have a veil that is often cobwebby like the cortina of Cortinarius that may or may not leave a ring on the stem. They are very difficult to tell apart, so which species are here and how common they are is not well understood. This genus is not actually a part of the Strophariaceae family.

D. montana - in moss.  Possibly the least peelable cap cuticle. Low and high elevations.

D. coprophila/subcoprophila - found on dung.

D. angustispora (Psilocybe angustispora) - very similar, on dung, much smaller <1cm. Not yet officially moved to Deconica.

D. merdaria/moelleri - on dung, with a ring on the stem, <4cm.

D. crobula - in forests, not on dung or moss. <4cm.

D. inquilina - in grass, possibly the same species, <2cm.

D. apelliculosa/subviscida/phyllogena - very similar, may or not be on dung, these species are especially nondescript.

Psilocybe atrobrunnea (Deconica turficola) - often darker, in wet places, <4cm. It has not been proven yet if this is a Psilocybe or a Deconica.

 

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